Snout obtuse, little produced; disc rhomboid, front margins more or less straight, hind margins convex; tail 1.3-1.5 times length of disc, with relatively short and deep membranous folds on top and below (originating at level of spine). Distance between fifth gill-slits half or less than their distance from mouth; floor of mouth with 5 bulbose papillae. Upper surfaces without large tubercles or bucklers in larger specimens, but with large narrow-based thorns on top of tail.
Upper surfaces greyish, olive or brown; underside white with a wide greyishbrown to blackish margin.
DD (Data Deficient) by the IUCN Red List.
Occurs in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Eastern Atlantic: from southern Norway and the UK to South Africa, including the Canary Islands, Madeira, western Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Marmara. It occurs from the shore to about 200 m depth, but is more commonly found in shallow waters.
It typically inhabits sandy or muddy habitats in coastal waters shallower than 60 m, sometimes near rocky reefs. Marine and brackish water.
Oviparous reproduction method. Gestation period about 4 months and 4-7 young are produced. Embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures Females reproduce twice a year.
Up to 57 cm, usually smaller
They feed on crustaceans, molluscs, polychaete worms and small bony fishes.
Can be dangerous to bathers and fishers due to its poisonous spine. Other common name: Yellow stingray.